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Rebase

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在上一节我们看到了,多人在同一个分支上协作时,很容易出现冲突。即使没有冲突,后push的童鞋不得不先pull,在本地合并,然后能力push胜利。

每次合并再push后,分支变成了这样:

$ git log --graph --pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit
* d1be385 (HEAD -> master, origin/master) init hello
*   e5e69f1 Merge branch 'dev'
|\  
| *   57c53ab (origin/dev, dev) fix env conflict
| |\  
| | * 7a5e5dd add env
| * | 7bd91f1 add new env
| |/  
* |   12a631b merged bug fix 101
|\ \  
| * | 4c805e2 fix bug 101
|/ /  
* |   e1e9c68 merge with no-ff
|\ \  
| |/  
| * f52c633 add merge
|/  
*   cf810e4 conflict fixed

总之看上去很乱,有强迫症的童鞋会问:为什么Git的提交历史不能是一条干净的直线?

其实是可以做到的!

Git有一种称为rebase的操作,有人把它翻译成“变基”。

rebase

先不要随意展开想象。我们还是从实际问题出发,看看怎么把分叉的提交变成直线。

在和远程分支同步后,我们对hello.py这个文件做了两次提交。用git log命令看看:

$ git log --graph --pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit
* 582d922 (HEAD -> master) add author
* 8875536 add comment
* d1be385 (origin/master) init hello
*   e5e69f1 Merge branch 'dev'
|\  
| *   57c53ab (origin/dev, dev) fix env conflict
| |\  
| | * 7a5e5dd add env
| * | 7bd91f1 add new env
...

注意到Git用(HEAD -> master)(origin/master)标识出当前分支的HEAD和远程origin的位置分别是582d922 add authord1be385 init hello,本地分支比远程分支快两个提交。

现在我们尝试推送本地分支:

$ git push origin master
To github.com:michaelliao/learngit.git
 ! [rejected]        master -> master (fetch first)
error: failed to push some refs to 'git@github.com:michaelliao/learngit.git'
hint: Updates were rejected because the remote contains work that you do
hint: not have locally. This is usually caused by another repository pushing
hint: to the same ref. You may want to first integrate the remote changes
hint: (e.g., 'git pull ...') before pushing again.
hint: See the 'Note about fast-forwards' in 'git push --help' for details.

很可怜,失败了,这说明有人先于我们推送了远程分支。依照经验,先pull一下:

$ git pull
remote: Counting objects: 3, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (1/1), done.
remote: Total 3 (delta 1), reused 3 (delta 1), pack-reused 0
Unpacking objects: 100% (3/3), done.
From github.com:michaelliao/learngit
   d1be385..f005ed4  master     -> origin/master
 * [new tag]         v1.0       -> v1.0
Auto-merging hello.py
Merge made by the 'recursive' strategy.
 hello.py | 1 +
 1 file changed, 1 insertion(+)

再用git status看看状态:

$ git status
On branch master
Your branch is ahead of 'origin/master' by 3 commits.
  (use "git push" to publish your local commits)

nothing to commit, working tree clean

加上刚才合并的提交,现在我们本地分支比远程分支超前3个提交。

git log看看:

$ git log --graph --pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit
*   e0ea545 (HEAD -> master) Merge branch 'master' of github.com:michaelliao/learngit
|\  
| * f005ed4 (origin/master) set exit=1
* | 582d922 add author
* | 8875536 add comment
|/  
* d1be385 init hello
...

对强迫症童鞋来说,现在事情有点错误头,提交历史分叉了。如果现在把本地分支push到远程,有没有问题?

有!

什么问题?

不好看!

有没有解决方法?

有!

这个时候,rebase就派上了用场。我们输入命令git rebase试试:

$ git rebase
First, rewinding head to replay your work on top of it...
Applying: add comment
Using index info to reconstruct a base tree...
M    hello.py
Falling back to patching base and 3-way merge...
Auto-merging hello.py
Applying: add author
Using index info to reconstruct a base tree...
M    hello.py
Falling back to patching base and 3-way merge...
Auto-merging hello.py

输出了一大堆操作,到底是啥效果?再用git log看看:

$ git log --graph --pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit
* 7e61ed4 (HEAD -> master) add author
* 3611cfe add comment
* f005ed4 (origin/master) set exit=1
* d1be385 init hello
...

原天职叉的提交现在变成一条直线了!这种神奇的操作是怎么实现的?其实原理非常简单。我们注意观察,发现Git把我们本地的提交“挪动”了位置,放到了f005ed4 (origin/master) set exit=1之后,这样,整个提交历史就成了一条直线。rebase操作前后,最终的提交内容是一致的,但是,我们本地的commit修改内容已经变更了,它们的修改不再基于d1be385 init hello,而是基于f005ed4 (origin/master) set exit=1,但最后的提交7e61ed4内容是一致的。

这就是rebase操作的特点:把分叉的提交历史“整理”成一条直线,看上去更直观。缺点是本地的分叉提交已经被修改过了。

最后,通过push操作把本地分支推送到远程:

Mac:~/learngit michael$ git push origin master
Counting objects: 6, done.
Delta compression using up to 4 threads.
Compressing objects: 100% (5/5), done.
Writing objects: 100% (6/6), 576 bytes | 576.00 KiB/s, done.
Total 6 (delta 2), reused 0 (delta 0)
remote: Resolving deltas: 100% (2/2), completed with 1 local object.
To github.com:michaelliao/learngit.git
   f005ed4..7e61ed4  master -> master

再用git log看看效果:

$ git log --graph --pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit
* 7e61ed4 (HEAD -> master, origin/master) add author
* 3611cfe add comment
* f005ed4 set exit=1
* d1be385 init hello
...

远程分支的提交历史也是一条直线。

小结

  • rebase操作可以把本地未push的分叉提交历史整理成直线;

  • rebase的目的是使得我们在查看历史提交的变更时更容易,因为分叉的提交需要三方对照。


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